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authorGuido Günther <agx@sigxcpu.org>2015-02-08 14:48:40 +0100
committerGuido Günther <agx@sigxcpu.org>2015-03-25 18:04:54 +0100
commit8fc6298ba1eb6e681866af03f08093614a0103b6 (patch)
tree9db368bf024342944f8abd3666ed5569a4b3481f
parent164e082605621c2c0f02db5e31cb1b7580ef8527 (diff)
6LowPAN on RPI
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+# 6LoWPAN on a RaspberryPi
+
+The aim is to get [6LoWPAN][1] running on a Rasberry Pi using a
+[Raspberry Pi 802.15.4 radio from openlabs][2] (based on the
+at86rf233) so we can later use it as a e.g. border router.
+
+The default Raspberry Pi kernel lacks support for recent
+[wpan-tools][3]. So we cross build a custom
+built kernel via tftp.
+
+In the following we assume the Raspberry Pi is at IP address 192.168.1.2 and
+does DHCP during boot.
+
+## Setup the build environment and the RPi
+Since the kernel build would take a long time on the Rasberry Pi we're using a
+Debian System to crossbuild the kernel.
+
+### Prepare cross toolhchain for Debian Jessie + Sid
+If you're running a RPi 2 you should be able to use the armhf
+toolchain provided by Debian already.
+
+ $ dpkg --add-architecture armhf
+ $ apt-get update
+ $ apt-get install make ncurses-dev gcc-arm-linux-gnueabihf build-essential
+
+ $ arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc -v
+ Using built-in specs.
+ COLLECT_GCC=arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc
+ COLLECT_LTO_WRAPPER=/usr/lib/gcc/arm-linux-gnueabihf/4.9/lto-wrapper
+ Target: arm-linux-gnueabihf
+ Configured with: ../src/configure -v --with-pkgversion=' 4.9.2-10' --with-bugurl=file:///usr/share/doc/gcc-4.9/README.Bugs --enable-languages=c,c++,fortran --prefix=/usr --program-suffix=-4.9 --enable-shared --enable-linker-build-id --libexecdir=/usr/lib --without-included-gettext --enable-threads=posix --with-gxx-include-dir=/usr/include/c++/4.9 --libdir=/usr/lib --enable-nls --with-sysroot=/ --enable-clocale=gnu --enable-libstdcxx-debug --enable-libstdcxx-time=yes --enable-gnu-unique-object --disable-libitm --disable-libquadmath --enable-plugin --with-system-zlib --enable-multiarch --disable-sjlj-exceptions --with-arch=armv7-a --with-fpu=vfpv3-d16 --with-float=hard --with-mode=thumb --enable-checking=release --build=x86_64-linux-gnu --host=x86_64-linux-gnu --target=arm-linux-gnueabihf --program-prefix=arm-linux-gnueabihf-
+ Thread model: posix
+ gcc version 4.9.2 ( 4.9.2-10)
+
+I don't have a Model 2 yet so I we have to grab the toolchain externally.
+
+### Linaro
+For the Rpi 1 B and B+ use the Linaro toolchain.
+
+ $ cd ~
+ $ git clone https://github.com/raspberrypi/tools
+ $ export PATH=~/tools/arm-bcm2708/gcc-linaro-arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian/bin:$PATH
+
+If you clone to another location be sure to adjusts the PATHs below too.
+
+### The Linaro toolchain is 32bit and 64bit
+Lots of the examples are using the 32bit one so lets use this too:
+
+ $ apt-get install lib32stdc++6 lib32z1
+ $ arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc -v
+ Using built-in specs.
+ COLLECT_GCC=arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc
+ COLLECT_LTO_WRAPPER=/home/agx/tools/arm-bcm2708/gcc-linaro-arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian/bin/../libexec/gcc/arm-linux-gnueabihf/4.8.3/lto-wrapper
+ Target: arm-linux-gnueabihf
+ Configured with: /cbuild/slaves/oorts/crosstool-ng/builds/arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian-linux/.build/src/gcc-linaro-4.8-2014.01/configure --build=i686-build_pc-linux-gnu --host=i686-build_pc-linux-gnu --target=arm-linux-gnueabihf --prefix=/cbuild/slaves/oorts/crosstool-ng/builds/arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian-linux/install --with-sysroot=/cbuild/slaves/oorts/crosstool-ng/builds/arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian-linux/install/arm-linux-gnueabihf/libc --enable-languages=c,c++,fortran --disable-multilib --enable-multiarch --with-arch=armv6 --with-tune=arm1176jz-s --with-fpu=vfp --with-float=hard --with-pkgversion='crosstool-NG linaro-1.13.1-4.8-2014.01 - Linaro GCC 2013.11' --with-bugurl=https://bugs.launchpad.net/gcc-linaro --enable-__cxa_atexit --enable-libmudflap --enable-libgomp --enable-libssp --with-gmp=/cbuild/slaves/oorts/crosstool-ng/builds/arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian-linux/.build/arm-linux-gnueabihf/build/static --with-mpfr=/cbuild/slaves/oorts/crosstool-ng/builds/arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian-linux/.build/arm-linux-gnueabihf/build/static --with-mpc=/cbuild/slaves/oorts/crosstool-ng/builds/arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian-linux/.build/arm-linux-gnueabihf/build/static --with-isl=/cbuild/slaves/oorts/crosstool-ng/builds/arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian-linux/.build/arm-linux-gnueabihf/build/static --with-cloog=/cbuild/slaves/oorts/crosstool-ng/builds/arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian-linux/.build/arm-linux-gnueabihf/build/static --with-libelf=/cbuild/slaves/oorts/crosstool-ng/builds/arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian-linux/.build/arm-linux-gnueabihf/build/static --enable-threads=posix --disable-libstdcxx-pch --enable-linker-build-id --enable-plugin --enable-gold --with-local-prefix=/cbuild/slaves/oorts/crosstool-ng/builds/arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian-linux/install/arm-linux-gnueabihf/libc --enable-c99 --enable-long-long --with-float=hard
+ Thread model: posix
+ gcc version 4.8.3 20140106 (prerelease) (crosstool-NG linaro-1.13.1-4.8-2014.01 - Linaro GCC 2013.11)
+
+### Crossbuild an upstream kernel for the RPi
+For 6LowPAN the bluethoth-next true is a good starting point:
+
+ $ git clone --depth=1 git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/bluetooth/bluetooth-next.git
+ $ export PATH=~/tools/arm-bcm2708/gcc-linaro-arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian/bin:$PATH
+ $ make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=arm-linux-gnueabihf- bcm2835_defconfig
+ $ ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=arm-linux-gnueabihf- chrt -i 0 make -j 4
+
+### UBoot
+We want to boot the kernel using UBoot so we can conveniently swap out kernels using TFTP
+This is mostly copied from http://elinux.org/RPi_U-Boot .
+
+#### On the build host
+Crossbuild uboot
+
+ $ git clone --deth=1 git://git.denx.de/u-boot.git
+ $ export PATH=~/tools/arm-bcm2708/gcc-linaro-arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian/bin:$PATH
+ $ export CROSS_COMPILE=/home/agx/tools/arm-bcm2708/gcc-linaro-arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-
+ $ export USE_PRIVATE_LIBGCC=yes
+ $ make rpi_defconfig
+ $ make -j4 -s
+
+#### On the RPI
+Configure the RPi to use the just built uboot
+
+ $ PI_IP=192.168.1.2
+ $ echo "kernel=u-boot.bin" >> /boot/config.txt
+ $ scp $PI_IP:u-boot/u-boot.bin /boot/u-boot.bin
+ $ reboot
+
+#### On the tftp server
+Move the necessary files to the tftp server
+
+ $ scp $PI_IP:bluetooth-next/arch/arm/boot/zImage rpi.img
+ $ scp $PI_IP:bluetooth-next/arch/arm/boot/dts/bcm2835-rpi-b-plus.dtb .
+
+If you're using another PI model copy the corresponding device tree (dtb) file
+
+#### First Boot
+(Again mostly from http://elinux.org/RPi_U-Boot). Attach to the serial
+console, once uboot starts do a
+
+ $ setenv fdtfile bcm2835-rpi-b-plus.dtb
+ $ setenv bootargs earlyprintk console=ttyAMA0 console=tty1 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootwait
+ $ usb start
+ $ dhcp ${kernel_addr_r} zImage
+ $ tftp ${fdt_addr_r} ${fdtfile}
+ $ bootz ${kernel_addr_r} - ${fdt_addr_r}
+
+#### Automate the boot
+Copy the above commands into a file called boot.src and do a
+
+ mkimage -A arm -O linux -T script -C none -n boot.scr -d boot.scr boot.scr.uimg
+
+move that to /boot on your pi. Booting will from now on happen automatically.
+
+## 6LoWPAN
+Now that we can quickly change and build kernels lets move to the 6LoWPAN part.
+
+### Configuring the kernel and patching the DTS
+In order to enable support for the at86rf233 and 802.15.14 radio we need to change
+some kernel configuration. Since the board is connected vie API we change the DTS
+so it gets properly detected. This is readily done in this git repo:
+
+ $ cd linux-wpan-next
+ $ git remote add agx git://github.com/agx/linux-wpan-next.git
+ $ git fetch rpi-6lowpan
+ $ git co -b rpi-6lowpan -b agx/rpi-6lowpan
+
+Now lets reubuild DTS and kernel
+
+ $ make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=arm-linux-gnueabihf- bcm2835_defconfig
+ $ ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=arm-linux-gnueabihf- chrt -i 0 make -j 4
+ $ ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=arm-linux-gnueabihf- make dtbs
+
+Transfer the files to the TFTP server again as described above.
+
+### Build the linxu-wpan tools
+Head over to your RPi. We build the wpan-tools there since they're small:
+
+ $ git clone https://github.com/linux-wpan/wpan-tools
+ $ sudo apt-get install autotools-dev libltdl-dev libnl-genl-3-dev
+ $ cd wpan-tools && ./autogen.sh && make
+
+Now we have all the tools:
+
+ $ src/iwpan list
+ wpan_phy phy0
+ supported channels:
+ page 0: 11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26
+ current_page: 0
+ current_channel: 13
+ cca_mode: 1
+ tx_power: 0
+
+Upstream info on wpan-tools is at http://wpan.cakelab.org/
+
+[1]: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/6LoWPAN
+[2]: http://openlabs.co/store/Raspberry-Pi-802.15.4-radio
+[3]: http://wpan.cakelab.org/